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Washington State University Institute of Materials Research
CZT detector
CZT sliced ingot
CZT detector fabrication
CZT growth



“Innovative Equipment Large Single-Crystal CdZnTe Production for Long-wave Infrared Detector Arrays” (2021-2022 Phase I, 2023-2025 Phase II)

Funding: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NBIB) – Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)

Partner: Structured Materials Industries, Inc. (SMI)

The aim of the project is to design and develop the innovative equipment to produce large, nearly perfect, high quality, single-crystal CdZnTe (CZT) material suitable for the production of the highest-performing long-wave infrared (LWIR) detector arrays.


“The Rapid-Production of the High-Performance and Affordable Cadmium Telluride and Cadmium Zinc Telluride for Medical Imaging Applications” (2019-2021 Phase I, 2023-2025 Phase II)

Funding: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NBIB) – Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR)

Partners: Radiation Detection Technologies Inc. (RDT), University of Arizona

“Commercialization of Rapid-Production Growth Method for Affordable Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) Semiconductor” (2019-2020 Phase I, 2021-2022 Phase II)

Funding:  Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) – Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR)

Partner: Radiation Detection Technologies, Inc. (RDT)

Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) has proven to be a valuable material for high-resolution, high detection-efficiency, room-temperature radiation detectors that can achieve a spectroscopic resolution of <1% full-width half maximum (FWHM). The high spatial and energy resolution of CZT, compared to that of scintillators, offers superior efficiency and image quality for nuclear safeguards, homeland security, nuclear medicine, and X-ray imaging applications. Recent advancements in the Accelerated Crucible Rotation Technique by Modified Vertical Bridgman (ACRT-MVB) crystal growth method, developed at the Institute for Materials Research at WSU, allows for CZT and similar materials to be grown at 10 – 20× faster growth rates than the current state-of-the-art methods, with material quality resulting in equal or better detector performance. The ACRT-MVB growth method for CZT is fast and does not require post-growth processing, two major advantages that lower the material cost.


Selected, WSU authors in bold.

  1. Lynn, K., K. Jones, and G. Ciampi, “Compositions of doped, co-doped and tri-doped semiconductor materials,” US, USPTO US8070987B2, (2007).
  2. Jones, K.A., A. Datta, K.G. Lynn, and L.A. Franks, “Variations in μτ measurements in cadmium zinc telluride,” Journal of Applied Physics, 107(12), 123714 (2010).
  3. Soundararajan, R. and K. Lynn, “Effects of excess tellurium and growth parameters on the band gap defect levels in CdxZn1−xTe,” Journal of Applied Physics, 112, 07311 (2012).
  4. Datta, A., S. Swain, Y. Cui, A. Burger, and K. Lynn, “Correlations of Bridgman-Grown Cd9Zn0.1Te Properties with Different Ampoule Rotation Schemes,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 42(11), 3041-3053 (2013).
  5. McCoy, J.J., S. Kakkireni, Z.H. Gilvey, S.K. Swain, A.E. Bolotnikov, and K.G. Lynn, “Overcoming Mobility Lifetime Product Limitations in Vertical Bridgman Production of Cadmium Zinc Telluride Detectors,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 48(7), 4226-4234 (2019).
  6. McCoy, J.J., S. Kakkireni, G. Gélinas, J.F. Garaffa, S.K. Swain, and K.G. Lynn, “Effects of excess Te on flux inclusion formation in the growth of cadmium zinc telluride when forced melt convection is applied,” Journal of Crystal Growth, 535, 125542 (2020).
  7. Gul, R., J.S. McCloy, M. Murugesan, B. Montag, and J. Singh, “Cl-Doped CdTe Crystal Growth for Medical Imaging Applications,” Crystals, 12(10), 1365 (2022).
  8. Kakkireni, S., M. Murugesan, B. Montag, and J. McCloy, “Seeded Crystal Growth of Cd-Zn-Te (CZT) Assisted via Numerical Modelling,” In Emerging Materials: Design, Characterization and Applications, L.R. Thoutam, S. Tayal, and J. Ajayan, Springer Nature Singapore, Singapore, 103-131 (2022).
  9. Kakkireni, S., S.K. Swain, K.G. Lynn, and J.S. McCloy, “Melt Growth of High-Resolution CdZnTe Detectors,” In Advanced Materials for Radiation Detection, K. Iniewski, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 265-284 (2022).