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Washington State University Institute of Materials Research

CZT/CdTe Development

The IMR and its researchers, led by Prof. Kelvin Lynn, have been involved in the development of Cd-Zn-Te and CdTe crystal growth development for over 20 years. Numerous projects, students, and papers have been completed with respect to these materials. The major focus initially was on radiation detectors for security applications and research instrumentation. Over the years this has transitioned to process optimization and commercialization.  At the same time, more recent research has been focused on solar energy applications, as well as medical imaging.  Current projects are ongoing in both solar energy and commercialization for detectors.

Crystal Growths#ProgressMain AchievementsDuration
1-60Setup of first furnace, sealing system, co-dopant optimization (Er, Dy, V, Fe, Pb, Ge, Bi along with In, Al). μτe, improved from ~7E-5 to 1E-3 range; patent on dopant scheme, crystal size increased from 50 mm - 65 mm~10 years (2009)
61-130Improvement in single crystalline yield, second phase distribution, scale-up, solar grade material. Improved single crystalline yield, second electro-dynamic gradient furnace built, crystal size increased to 90 mm~3 years (2012)
131-236Focused on Accelerated Crucible Rotation, stoichiometry optimization.Improvement in purity, best detector materials without post processing. Successful seeding implemented.~8 years (2020)

10 PhD Students, 9 Master’s Students, 4 crystal growth furnaces rebuilt at least 5 times.

  • Saketh Kakkireni, “Strategies and challenges to improve single crystal yield and detector properties of cadmium zinc telluride grown via accelerated crucible rotation,” PhD 2020.
  • Tawfeeq Al-Hamdi, “Cost-effective Techniques to Improve the Performance and Efficiency of CdTe Solar Modules,” PhD 2019.
  • Jedidiah McCoy, “Implementation of Accelerated Crucible Rotation in Electrodynamic Gradient Freeze Method for Highly Nonstoichiometric Melt Growth of Cadmium Zinc Telluride,” PhD 2018.
  • Tursun Ablekim, “Electrical properties of CdTe single crystals, defects and their correlation to solar cell performance,” PhD 2015.
  • Sachin Bhaladhare, “Characterization of secondary phases in Cd0.9Zn0.1Te detector grade semiconductor by IR transmission microscope and implementation of ampoule rotation technique in modified,” PhD 2013.
  • Amlan Datta, “Strategic approaches towards solving critical challenges in crystal growth of detector grade Cd0.9Zn0.1Te including melt mixing techniques,” PhD 2013.
  • Santosh Swain, “Large volume single crystal growth of cadmium zinc telluride with minimal secondary phases for room temperature radiation detector application,” PhD 2011.
  • Kelly Jones, “Optimization of cadmium zinc telluride crystal growth for room temperature radiation detectors,” PhD 2009.
  • Salah Awadalla, “Defect characterization in cadmium telluride and cadmium-zinc tellurium crystals,” PhD 2003.
  • Toby Rule, “Experimental validation of (cadmium,zinc) telluride crystal growth model,” PhD 2002.