Ruby and Sapphire
At WSU, we have 3 multi-zone Modified Vertical Bridgman (MVB) furnaces, a custom built 4 zone Travelling Heater Method (THM) furnace, and two High Pressure Bridgman (HPB) furnaces. Additionally, we have two Czochralski (CZ) furnaces, both of which can also perform Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) or Kyropoulos growth methods. One CZ furnace is custom built and allows rotation of the crucible.
All these furnaces come with its individual power and control systems along with proper monitoring equipment. LabVIEW® software and National Instruments® hardware is used for custom control and recording of furnace parameters and growth conditions. More details can be seen through the individual page links.
7 PhD students, in addition to those focusing on CdTe-related materials, have assisted in the research on growth and characterization of oxide crystals:
From 1996-2021, we have grown at least 16 different crystals, not including doping variations, in our laboratories, as follows.
|Number of Growths||Method||Dopants|
|>250||VB, THM, CZ|
VB, THM, HPB
|Er, Dy, V, Fe, Pb, Ge, Bi, In, Al
P, As, Sb, In, Cl, I
(x=0.3 and 0.32)
similar mixed garnets
|>60||CZ, VGF||Ce, Er, Yb , Nd, B, Li, Ca
|~10||CZ||Cr, Ti, Fe|
|LiAlO2||>20||CZ||Mg, Ti, Ca, Ce, Eu, Pr|
|Ga2O3||>60||CZ, VGF||Ca, Mg, Zr, Hf, Al, Cr, Zn, Cu|